Pete Dye, ‘Picasso’ of Golf Course Design, Is Dead at 94

Mr. Dye collaborated with Jack Nicklaus in designing the Harbour Town Golf Links on Hilton Head Island, S.C. Opening in 1969 as the site of the Heritage Classic and known for its red and white lighthouse overlooking the 18th hole, it required golfers to hit to specific areas in order to master it at a time when many courses demanded powerful drives.

“It was Pete who inspired me to start designing courses more than 50 years ago, and so in many ways I owe my second career to him,” Mr. Nicklaus said in a statement.

“I think Pete Dye was the most creative, imaginative and unconventional golf course designer I have ever been around,” he added. “Pete would try things that nobody else would ever think of doing or certainly try to do, and he was successful at it. If there was a problem to solve, you solved it Pete’s way. In the end, Pete’s way usually turned out to be the right way.”

Mr. Dye was probably best remembered for TPC Sawgrass, built on Florida swampland. At the suggestion of Deane Beman, the P.G.A. commissioner at the time, it became the first prominent stadium course, allowing spectators to view the action from elevated areas of the terrain. Since the course opened in 1980, the fans have been amused by all those balls landing in the water at the 17th hole, so near but so frustrating for golf’s elite at the Players Championship.

“What’s amazing is that if that green were surrounded by sand instead of water, those guys would never miss the green,” the golf coach Butch Harmon once remarked.

The Dye roster of courses also includes PGA West, near Palm Springs, Calif., and the Ocean Course, on Kiawah Island in South Carolina.

Pete Dye received the PGA Tour Lifetime Achievement Award in 2005 and was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 2008. Alice Dye was given the PGA of America’s First Lady of Golf Award in 2004. In addition to her course design work, she championed forward tees that make formidable courses more playable for most women as well as for male players outside the pro ranks.